This series of research articles look at various theories, support strategies and interaction desired by adults completing self-directed e-PD
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Harlen, Doubler (2004). This research looked at which features of online or f2f learning strategies best support learning inquiry. Hands-on at a distrance rated very high.
Russell, Kleiman, Carey, Douglas (2009). Looked at online PD for 231 initial middle level math teachers and which levels of scaffolding and interaction were most important (learner-learner, learner-instructor, learner-content).
Sherman, Byers (2008). Found significant gains in teacher self-efficacy and learning for middle level teachers completing self-directed e-PD modules for 2 out of 3 school districts (blended PD district did not find sig. gains).
Krall, Straley, Shafer & Osborn (2009). Looked at self-directed online learning using kits and inquiry at a distance. Significant gains in learning and compared with components of support most preferred.
Rhode (2009). Looked at learner preferences collected via interviews for 10 adults in self-paced online PD as part of a 1 year certificate program. Some learners prefer learner-instructor, learner-content over learner-learner interaction.
Asbell-Clarke, Rowe (2007). Review of 40 online science courses across 6 institutions. Finds hands-on omitted at a distrance, as well as learning objects. Rich instructor facilitated discussion mainstay of interaction method for learning.
del Valle and Duffy article (2009). Cluster analysis revealed mastery oriented, task-focused, and minimalist adult learners. Years experience significantly larger in Mastery oriented learners.