Carolina Biological-Knowledge Center – July 2024

The Standards

Disciplinary Core Ideas

Life Science (LS)

Listed below are the Disciplinary Core Ideas (DCI) for Life Science and bullet points for their specific grade band progression.


LS3: Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of Traits

LS3.B: Variation of Traits

Primary School (K-2)

Individuals of the same kind of plant or animal are recognizable as similar but can also vary in many ways.

Elementary School (3-5)

Different organisms vary in how they look and function because they have different inherited information.

The environment also affects the traits that an organism develops.

Middle School (6-8)

In sexually reproducing organisms, each parent contributes half of the genes acquired (at random) by the offspring. Individuals have two of each chromosome and hence two alleles of each gene, one acquired from each parent. These versions may be identical or may differ from each other.

In addition to variations that arise from sexual reproduction, genetic information can be altered because of mutations. Though rare, mutations may result in changes to the structure and function of proteins. Some changes are beneficial, others harmful, and some neutral to the organism.

High School (9-12)

In sexual reproduction, chromosomes can sometimes swap sections during the process of meiosis (cell division), thereby creating new genetic combinations and thus more genetic variation. Although DNA replication is tightly regulated and remarkably accurate, errors do occur and result in mutations, which are also a source of genetic variation. Environmental factors can also cause mutations in genes, and viable mutations are inherited.

Environmental factors also affect expression of traits, and hence affect the probability of occurrences of traits in a population. Thus the variation and distribution of traits observed depends on both genetic and environmental factors.