# The Standards

### Energy

#### Students who demonstrate understanding can:

Create a computational model to calculate the change in the energy of one component in a system when the change in energy of the other component(s) and energy flows in and out of the system are known. HS-PS3-1

Clarification Statement and Assessment Boundary

Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on explaining the meaning of mathematical expressions used in the model.

Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to basic algebraic expressions or computations; to systems of two or three components; and to thermal energy, kinetic energy, and/or the energies in gravitational, magnetic, or electric fields.

##### Science and Engineering Practices

Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking

Mathematical and computational thinking in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions.

##### Crosscutting Concepts

Systems and System Models

###### Connections to Nature of Science

Scientific Knowledge Assumes an Order and Consistency in Natural Systems

### Common Core State Standards Connections

ELA/Literacy
• SL.11-12.5 - Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest. (HS-PS3-1)
Mathematics
• HSN-Q.A.1 - Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays. (HS-PS3-1)
• HSN-Q.A.2 - Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling. (HS-PS3-1)
• HSN-Q.A.3 - Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities. (HS-PS3-1)
• MP.2 - Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-PS3-1)
• MP.4 - Model with mathematics. (HS-PS3-1)

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