## Energy

#### Students who demonstrate understanding can:

Construct and interpret graphical displays of data to describe the relationships of kinetic energy to the mass of an object and to the speed of an object. MS-PS3-1

Clarification Statement and Assessment Boundary

Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on descriptive relationships between kinetic energy and mass separately from kinetic energy and speed. Examples could include riding a bicycle at different speeds, rolling different sizes of rocks downhill, and getting hit by a wiffle ball versus a tennis ball.

Assessment Boundary: none

##### Science and Engineering Practices

Analyzing and Interpreting Data

Analyzing data in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to extending quantitative analysis to investigations, distinguishing between correlation and causation, and basic statistical techniques of data and error analysis.

##### Crosscutting Concepts

Scale, Proportion, and Quantity

### Common Core State Standards Connections

ELA/Literacy
• RST.6-8.1 - Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts. (MS-PS3-1)
• RST.6-8.7 - Integrate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text with a version of that information expressed visually (e.g., in a flowchart, diagram, model, graph, or table). (MS-PS3-1)
Mathematics
• 6.RP.A.1 - Understand the concept of a ratio and use ratio language to describe a ratio relationship between two quantities. (MS-PS3-1)
• 6.RP.A.2 - Understand the concept of a unit rate a/b associated with a ratio a:b with b â‰  0, and use rate language in the context of a ratio relationship. (MS-PS3-1)
• 7.RP.A.2 - Recognize and represent proportional relationships between quantities. (MS-PS3-1)
• 8.EE.A.1 - Know and apply the properties of integer exponents to generate equivalent numerical expressions. (MS-PS3-1)
• 8.EE.A.2 - Use square root and cube root symbols to represent solutions to equations of the form xÂ² = p and xÂ³ = p, where p is a positive rational number. Evaluate square roots of small perfect squares and cube roots of small perfect cubes. Know that âˆš2 is irrational. (MS-PS3-1)
• 8.F.A.3 - Interpret the equation y = mx + b as defining a linear function, whose graph is a straight line; give examples of functions that are not linear. (MS-PS3-1)
• MP.2 - Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (MS-PS3-1)

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