Apply scientific principles to design, construct, and test a device that either minimizes or maximizes thermal energy transfer. MS-PS3-3
Clarification Statement: Examples of devices could include an insulated box, a solar cooker, and a Styrofoam cup.
Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include calculating the total amount of thermal energy transferred.
Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to include constructing explanations and designing solutions supported by multiple sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.
Apply scientific ideas or principles to design, construct, and test a design of an object, tool, process or system. (MS-PS3-3)
Definitions of Energy
Temperature is not a measure of energy; the relationship between the temperature and the total energy of a system depends on the types, states, and amounts of matter present. (MS-PS3-3)
Conservation of Energy and Energy Transfer
Energy is spontaneously transferred out of hotter regions or objects and into colder ones. (MS-PS3-3)
Defining and Delimiting Engineering Problems
The more precisely a design task’s criteria and constraints can be defined, the more likely it is that the designed solution will be successful. Specification of constraints includes consideration of scientific principles and other relevant knowledge that is likely to limit possible solutions. (secondary to MS-PS3-3)
Developing Possible Solutions
Energy and Matter
The transfer of energy can be tracked as energy flows through a designed or natural system. (MS-PS3-3)