The Standards

Middle School


Students who demonstrate understanding can:



Apply scientific principles to design, construct, and test a device that either minimizes or maximizes thermal energy transfer. MS-PS3-3

Clarification Statement and Assessment Boundary

Clarification Statement: Examples of devices could include an insulated box, a solar cooker, and a Styrofoam cup.

Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include calculating the total amount of thermal energy transferred.

Science and Engineering Practices

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to include constructing explanations and designing solutions supported by multiple sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

Apply scientific ideas or principles to design, construct, and test a design of an object, tool, process or system. (MS-PS3-3)

Common Core State Standards Connections

  • RST.6-8.3 - Follow precisely a multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks. (MS-PS3-3)
  • WHST.6-8.7 - Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration. (MS-PS3-3)

Model Course Mapping

First Time Visitors