The Standards

Middle School


Students who demonstrate understanding can:



Construct, use, and present arguments to support the claim that when the kinetic energy of an object changes, energy is transferred to or from the object. MS-PS3-5

Clarification Statement and Assessment Boundary

Clarification Statement: Examples of empirical evidence used in arguments could include an inventory or other representation of the energy before and after the transfer in the form of temperature changes or motion of object.

Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include calculations of energy.

Science and Engineering Practices

Engaging in Argument from Evidence

Engaging in argument from evidence in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to constructing a convincing argument that supports or refutes claims for either explanations or solutions about the natural and designed world(s).

Construct, use, and present oral and written arguments supported by empirical evidence and scientific reasoning to support or refute an explanation or a model for a phenomenon. (MS-PS3-5)

Connections to Nature of Science

Science Knowledge Is Based on Empirical Evidence

Science knowledge is based upon logical and conceptual connections between evidence and explanations. (MS-PS3-5)

Common Core State Standards Connections

  • RST.6-8.1 - Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts. (MS-PS3-5)
  • WHST.6-8.1 - Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts. (MS-PS3-5)
  • 6.RP.A.1 - Understand the concept of a ratio and use ratio language to describe a ratio relationship between two quantities. (MS-PS3-5)
  • 7.RP.A.2 - Recognize and represent proportional relationships between quantities. (MS-PS3-5)
  • 8.F.A.3 - Interpret the equation y = mx + b as defining a linear function, whose graph is a straight line; give examples of functions that are not linear. (MS-PS3-5)
  • MP.2 - Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (MS-PS3-5)

Model Course Mapping

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