# The Standards

### Earth's Place in the Universe

#### Students who demonstrate understanding can:

Use mathematical or computational representations to predict the motion of orbiting objects in the solar system. HS-ESS1-4

Clarification Statement and Assessment Boundary

Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on Newtonian gravitational laws governing orbital motions, which apply to human-made satellites as well as planets and moons.

Assessment Boundary: Mathematical representations for the gravitational attraction of bodies and Kepler’s Laws of orbital motions should not deal with more than two bodies, nor involve calculus.

##### Science and Engineering Practices

Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking

Mathematical and computational thinking in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions.

##### Disciplinary Core Ideas

ESS1.BEarth and the Solar System

##### Crosscutting Concepts

Scale, Proportion, and Quantity

###### Connections to Engineering, Technology, and Applications of Science

Interdependence of Science, Engineering, and Technology

### Common Core State Standards Connections

Mathematics
• HSA-CED.A.2 - Create equations in two or more variables to represent relationships between quantities; graph equations on coordinate axes with labels and scales. (HS-ESS1-4)
• HSA-CED.A.4 - Rearrange formulas to highlight a quantity of interest, using the same reasoning as in solving equations. (HS-ESS1-4)
• HSA-SSE.A.1 - Interpret expressions that represent a quantity in terms of its context. (HS-ESS1-4)
• HSN-Q.A.1 - Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays. (HS-ESS1-4)
• HSN-Q.A.2 - Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling. (HS-ESS1-4)
• HSN-Q.A.3 - Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities. (HS-ESS1-4)
• MP.2 - Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-ESS1-4)
• MP.4 - Model with mathematics. (HS-ESS1-4)

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