Carolina Biological-Knowledge Center – April 2024

High School

Earth and Human Activity


Students who demonstrate understanding can:



Create a computational simulation to illustrate the relationships among management of natural resources, the sustainability of human populations, and biodiversity. HS-ESS3-3

Clarification Statement and Assessment Boundary

Clarification Statement: Examples of factors that affect the management of natural resources include costs of resource extraction and waste management, per-capita consumption, and the development of new technologies. Examples of factors that affect human sustainability include agricultural efficiency, levels of conservation, and urban planning.

Assessment Boundary: Assessment for computational simulations is limited to using provided multi-parameter programs or constructing simplified spreadsheet calculations.

Science and Engineering Practices

Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking

Mathematical and computational thinking in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions.

Create a computational model or simulation of a phenomenon, designed device, process, or system. (HS-ESS3-3)

Common Core State Standards Connections

  • MP.2 - Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-ESS3-3)
  • MP.4 - Model with mathematics. (HS-ESS3-3)