The Standards

Middle School

Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics

Students who demonstrate understanding can:



Evaluate competing design solutions for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem services. MS-LS2-5

Clarification Statement and Assessment Boundary

Clarification Statement: Examples of ecosystem services could include water purification, nutrient recycling, and prevention of soil erosion. Examples of design solution constraints could include scientific, economic, and social considerations.

Assessment Boundary: none

Science and Engineering Practices

Engaging in Argument from Evidence

Engaging in argument from evidence in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to constructing a convincing argument that supports or refutes claims for either explanations or solutions about the natural and designed world(s).

Evaluate competing design solutions based on jointly developed and agreed-upon design criteria. (MS-LS2-5)

Common Core State Standards Connections

  • RI.8.8 - Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; recognize when irrelevant evidence is introduced. (MS-LS2-5)
  • RST.6-8.8 - Distinguish among facts, reasoned judgment based on research findings, and speculation in a text. (MS-LS2-5)
  • 6.RP.A.3 - Use ratio and rate reasoning to solve real-world and mathematical problems, e.g., by reasoning about tables of equivalent ratios, tape diagrams, double number line diagrams, or equations. (MS-LS2-5)
  • MP.4 - Model with mathematics. (MS-LS2-5)

Model Course Mapping

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