Ask questions and predict outcomes about the changes in energy that occur when objects collide. 4-PS3-3
Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the change in the energy due to the change in speed, not on the forces, as objects interact.
Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include quantitative measurements of energy.
Asking Questions and Defining Problems
Asking questions and defining problems in grades 3–5 builds from grades K–2 experiences and progresses to specifying qualitative relationships.
Ask questions that can be investigated and predict reasonable outcomes based on patterns such as cause and effect relationships. (4-PS3-3)
Definitions of Energy
Energy can be moved from place to place by moving objects or through sound, light, or electric currents. (4-PS3-3)
Conservation of Energy and Energy Transfer
Energy is present whenever there are moving objects, sound, light, or heat. When objects collide, energy can be transferred from one object to another, thereby changing their motion. In such collisions, some energy is typically also transferred to the surrounding air; as a result, the air gets heated and sound is produced. (4-PS3-3)
Relationship Between Energy and Forces
When objects collide, the contact forces transfer energy so as to change the objects’ motions. (4-PS3-3)
Energy and Matter
Energy can be transferred in various ways and between objects. (4-PS3-3)