Use mathematical representations to support the claim that the total momentum of a system of objects is conserved when there is no net force on the system. HS-PS2-2
Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the quantitative conservation of momentum in interactions and the qualitative meaning of this principle.
Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to systems of two macroscopic bodies moving in one dimension.
Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking
Mathematical and computational thinking in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions.
Use mathematical representations of phenomena to describe explanations. (HS-PS2-2)
Forces and Motion
Momentum is defined for a particular frame of reference; it is the mass times the velocity of the object. In any system, total
momentum is always conserved. (HS-PS2-2)
If a system interacts with objects outside itself, the total momentum of the system can change; however, any such change is balanced by changes in the momentum of objects outside the system. (HS-PS2-2)
Systems and System Models
When investigating or describing a system, the boundaries and initial conditions of the system need to be defined. (HS-PS2-2)