The Standards


Forces and Interactions: Pushes and Pulls

Students who demonstrate understanding can:




Plan and conduct an investigation to compare the effects of different strengths or different directions of pushes and pulls on the motion of an object K-PS2-1

Clarification Statement and Assessment Boundary

Clarification Statement: Examples of pushes or pulls could include a string attached to an object being pulled, a person pushing an object, a person stopping a rolling ball, and two objects colliding and pushing on each other.

Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to different relative strengths or different directions, but not both at the same time. Assessment does not include non-contact pushes or pulls such as those produced by magnets.


Analyze data to determine if a design solution works as intended to change the speed or direction of an object with a push or a pull. K-PS2-2

Clarification Statement and Assessment Boundary

Clarification Statement: Examples of problems requiring a solution could include having a marble or other object move a certain distance, follow a particular path, and knock down other objects. Examples of solutions could include tools such as a ramp to increase the speed of the object and a structure that would cause an object such as a marble or ball to turn.

Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include friction as a mechanism for change in speed.

Science and Engineering Practices

Planning and Carrying Out Investigations

Planning and carrying out investigations to answer questions or test solutions to problems in K–2 builds on prior experiences and progresses to simple investigations, based on fair tests, which provide data to support explanations or design solutions.

With guidance, plan and conduct an investigation in collaboration with peers. (K-PS2-1)

Analyzing and Interpreting Data

Analyzing data in K–2 builds on prior experiences and progresses to collecting, recording, and sharing observations.

Analyze data from tests of an object or tool to determine if it works as intended. (K-PS2-2)

Connections to Nature of Science

Scientific Investigations Use a Variety of Methods

Scientists use different ways to study the world. (K-PS2-1)

Common Core State Standards Connections

  • RI.K.1 - With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text. (K-PS2-2)
  • SL.K.3 - Ask and answer questions in order to seek help, get information, or clarify something that is not understood. (K-PS2-2)
  • W.K.7 - Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., explore a number of books by a favorite author and express opinions about them). (K-PS2-1)
  • K.MD.A.1 - Describe measurable attributes of objects, such as length or weight. Describe several measurable attributes of a single object. (K-PS2-1)
  • K.MD.A.2 - Directly compare two objects with a measurable attribute in common, to see which object has "more of"/"less of" the attribute, and describe the difference. (K-PS2-1)
  • MP.2 - Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (K-PS2-1)

Model Course Mapping

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