Construct an argument that plants and animals have internal and external structures that function to support survival, growth, behavior, and reproduction. 4-LS1-1
Clarification Statement: Examples of structures could include thorns, stems, roots, colored petals, heart, stomach, lung, brain, and skin.
Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to macroscopic structures within plant and animal systems.
Use a model to describe that animals receive different types of information through their senses, process the information in their brain, and respond to the information in different ways. 4-LS1-2
Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on systems of information transfer.
Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include the mechanisms by which the brain stores and recalls information or the mechanisms of how sensory receptors function.
Develop a model to describe that light reflecting from objects and entering the eye allows objects to be seen. 4-PS4-2
Clarification Statement: none
Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include knowledge of specific colors reflected and seen, the cellular mechanisms of vision, or how the retina works.
Developing and Using Models
Modeling in 3–5 builds on K–2 experiences and progresses to building and revising simple models and using models to represent events and design solutions.
Develop a model to describe phenomena. (4-PS4-2)
Use a model to test interactions concerning the functioning of a natural system. (4-LS1-2)
Engaging in Argument from Evidence
Engaging in argument from evidence in 3–5 builds on K–2 experiences and progresses to critiquing the scientific explanations or solutions proposed by peers by citing relevant evidence about the natural and designed world(s).
Construct an argument with evidence, data, and/or a model. (4-LS1-1)
An object can be seen when light reflected from its surface enters the eyes. (4-PS4-2)
Structure and Function
Plants and animals have both internal and external structures that serve various functions in growth, survival, behavior, and reproduction. (4-LS1-1)
Different sense receptors are specialized for particular kinds of information, which may be then processed by the animal’s brain. Animals are able to use their perceptions and memories to guide their actions. (4-LS1-2)
Cause and Effect
Cause and effect relationships are routinely identified. (4-PS4-2)
Systems and System Models
A system can be described in terms of its components and their interactions. (4-LS1-1), (4-LS1-2)