The Standards

Middle School

Energy

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

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Construct and interpret graphical displays of data to describe the relationships of kinetic energy to the mass of an object and to the speed of an object. MS-PS3-1

Clarification Statement and Assessment Boundary

Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on descriptive relationships between kinetic energy and mass separately from kinetic energy and speed. Examples could include riding a bicycle at different speeds, rolling different sizes of rocks downhill, and getting hit by a wiffle ball versus a tennis ball.

Assessment Boundary: none

 

Develop a model to describe that when the arrangement of objects interacting at a distance changes, different amounts of potential energy are stored in the system. MS-PS3-2

Clarification Statement and Assessment Boundary

Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on relative amounts of potential energy, not on calculations of potential energy. Examples of objects within systems interacting at varying distances could include: the Earth and either a roller coaster cart at varying positions on a hill or objects at varying heights on shelves, changing the direction/orientation of a magnet, and a balloon with static electrical charge being brought closer to a classmate’s hair. Examples of models could include representations, diagrams, pictures, and written descriptions of systems.

Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to two objects and electric, magnetic, and gravitational interactions.

 

Apply scientific principles to design, construct, and test a device that either minimizes or maximizes thermal energy transfer. MS-PS3-3

Clarification Statement and Assessment Boundary

Clarification Statement: Examples of devices could include an insulated box, a solar cooker, and a Styrofoam cup.

Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include calculating the total amount of thermal energy transferred.

 

Plan an investigation to determine the relationships among the energy transferred, the type of matter, the mass, and the change in the average kinetic energy of the particles as measured by the temperature of the sample. MS-PS3-4

Clarification Statement and Assessment Boundary

Clarification Statement: Examples of experiments could include comparing final water temperatures after different masses of ice melted in the same volume of water with the same initial temperature, the temperature change of samples of different materials with the same mass as they cool or heat in the environment, or the same material with different masses when a specific amount of energy is added.

Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include calculating the total amount of thermal energy transferred.

 

Construct, use, and present arguments to support the claim that when the kinetic energy of an object changes, energy is transferred to or from the object. MS-PS3-5

Clarification Statement and Assessment Boundary

Clarification Statement: Examples of empirical evidence used in arguments could include an inventory or other representation of the energy before and after the transfer in the form of temperature changes or motion of object.

Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include calculations of energy.

Science and Engineering Practices

Developing and Using Models

Modeling in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to developing, using, and revising models to describe, test, and predict more abstract phenomena and design systems.

Develop a model to describe unobservable mechanisms. (MS-PS3-2)

Planning and Carrying Out Investigations

Planning and carrying out investigations to answer questions or test solutions to problems in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to include investigations that use multiple variables and provide evidence to support explanations or design solutions.

Plan an investigation individually and collaboratively, and in the design: identify independent and dependent variables and controls, what tools are needed to do the gathering, how measurements will be recorded, and how many data are needed to support a claim. (MS-PS3-4)

Analyzing and Interpreting Data

Analyzing data in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to extending quantitative analysis to investigations, distinguishing between correlation and causation, and basic statistical techniques of data and error analysis.

Construct and interpret graphical displays of data to identify linear and nonlinear relationships. (MS-PS3-1)

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to include constructing explanations and designing solutions supported by multiple sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

Apply scientific ideas or principles to design, construct, and test a design of an object, tool, process or system. (MS-PS3-3)

Engaging in Argument from Evidence

Engaging in argument from evidence in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to constructing a convincing argument that supports or refutes claims for either explanations or solutions about the natural and designed world(s).

Construct, use, and present oral and written arguments supported by empirical evidence and scientific reasoning to support or refute an explanation or a model for a phenomenon. (MS-PS3-5)

Connections to Nature of Science

Science Knowledge Is Based on Empirical Evidence

Science knowledge is based upon logical and conceptual connections between evidence and explanations. (MS-PS3-4), (MS-PS3-5)

Disciplinary Core Ideas

PS3.ADefinitions of Energy

Temperature is not a measure of energy; the relationship between the temperature and the total energy of a system depends on the types, states, and amounts of matter present. (MS-PS3-3), (MS-PS3-4)

Motion energy is properly called kinetic energy; it is proportional to the mass of the moving object and grows with the square of its speed. (MS-PS3-1)

A system of objects may also contain stored (potential) energy, depending on their relative positions. (MS-PS3-2)

PS3.BConservation of Energy and Energy Transfer

When the motion energy of an object changes, there is inevitably some other change in energy at the same time. (MS-PS3-5)

The amount of energy transfer needed to change the temperature of a matter sample by a given amount depends on the nature of the matter, the size of the sample, and the environment. (MS-PS3-4)

Energy is spontaneously transferred out of hotter regions or objects and into colder ones. (MS-PS3-3)

PS3.CRelationship Between Energy and Forces

When two objects interact, each one exerts a force on the other that can cause energy to be transferred to or from the object. (MS-PS3-2)

ETS1.ADefining and Delimiting Engineering Problems

The more precisely a design task’s criteria and constraints can be defined, the more likely it is that the designed solution will be successful. Specification of constraints includes consideration of scientific principles and other relevant knowledge that is likely to limit possible solutions. (secondary to MS-PS3-3)

ETS1.BDeveloping Possible Solutions

Common Core State Standards Connections

ELA/Literacy
  • RST.6-8.1 - Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts. (MS-PS3-1), (MS-PS3-5)
  • RST.6-8.3 - Follow precisely a multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks. (MS-PS3-3)
  • RST.6-8.7 - Integrate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text with a version of that information expressed visually (e.g., in a flowchart, diagram, model, graph, or table). (MS-PS3-1)
  • SL.8.5 - Integrate multimedia and visual displays into presentations to clarify information, strengthen claims and evidence, and add interest. (MS-PS3-2)
  • WHST.6-8.1 - Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts. (MS-PS3-5)
  • WHST.6-8.7 - Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration. (MS-PS3-3), (MS-PS3-4)
Mathematics
  • 6.RP.A.1 - Understand the concept of a ratio and use ratio language to describe a ratio relationship between two quantities. (MS-PS3-1), (MS-PS3-5)
  • 6.RP.A.2 - Understand the concept of a unit rate a/b associated with a ratio a:b with b ≠ 0, and use rate language in the context of a ratio relationship. (MS-PS3-1)
  • 6.SP.B.5 - Summarize numerical data sets in relation to their context. (MS-PS3-4)
  • 7.RP.A.2 - Recognize and represent proportional relationships between quantities. (MS-PS3-1), (MS-PS3-5)
  • 8.EE.A.1 - Know and apply the properties of integer exponents to generate equivalent numerical expressions. (MS-PS3-1)
  • 8.EE.A.2 - Use square root and cube root symbols to represent solutions to equations of the form x² = p and x³ = p, where p is a positive rational number. Evaluate square roots of small perfect squares and cube roots of small perfect cubes. Know that √2 is irrational. (MS-PS3-1)
  • 8.F.A.3 - Interpret the equation y = mx + b as defining a linear function, whose graph is a straight line; give examples of functions that are not linear. (MS-PS3-1), (MS-PS3-5)
  • MP.2 - Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (MS-PS3-1), (MS-PS3-4), (MS-PS3-5)

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