# The Standards

#### Students who demonstrate understanding can:

Use mathematical representations to describe a simple model for waves that includes how the amplitude of a wave is related to the energy in a wave. MS-PS4-1

Clarification Statement and Assessment Boundary

Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on describing waves with both qualitative and quantitative thinking.

Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include electromagnetic waves and is limited to standard repeating waves.

Develop and use a model to describe that waves are reflected, absorbed, or transmitted through various materials. MS-PS4-2

Clarification Statement and Assessment Boundary

Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on both light and mechanical waves. Examples of models could include drawings, simulations, and written descriptions.

Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to qualitative applications pertaining to light and mechanical waves.

Integrate qualitative scientific and technical information to support the claim that digitized signals are a more reliable way to encode and transmit information than analog signals. MS-PS4-3

Clarification Statement and Assessment Boundary

Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on a basic understanding that waves can be used for communication purposes. Examples could include using fiber optic cable to transmit light pulses, radio wave pulses in wifi devices, and conversion of stored binary patterns to make sound or text on a computer screen.

Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include binary counting. Assessment does not include the specific mechanism of any given device.

##### Science and Engineering Practices

Developing and Using Models

Modeling in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to developing, using, and revising models to describe, test, and predict more abstract phenomena and design systems.

Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking

Mathematical and computational thinking at the 6–8 level builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to identifying patterns in large data sets and using mathematical concepts to support explanations and arguments.

Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information

Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to evaluating the merit and validity of ideas and methods.

###### Connections to Nature of Science

Science Knowledge Is Based on Empirical Evidence

##### Disciplinary Core Ideas

PS4.AWave Properties

PS4.CInformation Technologies and Instrumentation

##### Crosscutting Concepts

Patterns

Structure and Function

###### Connections to Engineering, Technology, and Applications of Science

Influence of Science, Engineering, and Technology on Society and the Natural World

###### Connections to Nature of Science

Science Is a Human Endeavor

### Common Core State Standards Connections

ELA/Literacy
• RST.6-8.1 - Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts. (MS-PS4-3)
• RST.6-8.2 - Determine the central ideas or conclusions of a text; provide an accurate summary of the text distinct from prior knowledge or opinions. (MS-PS4-3)
• RST.6-8.9 - Compare and contrast the information gained from experiments, simulations, video, or multimedia sources with that gained from reading a text on the same topic. (MS-PS4-3)
• SL.8.5 - Integrate multimedia and visual displays into presentations to clarify information, strengthen claims and evidence, and add interest. (MS-PS4-1), (MS-PS4-2)
• WHST.6-8.9 - Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis reflection, and research. (MS-PS4-3)
Mathematics
• 6.RP.A.1 - Understand the concept of a ratio and use ratio language to describe a ratio relationship between two quantities. (MS-PS4-1)
• 6.RP.A.3 - Use ratio and rate reasoning to solve real-world and mathematical problems, e.g., by reasoning about tables of equivalent ratios, tape diagrams, double number line diagrams, or equations. (MS-PS4-1)
• 7.RP.A.2 - Recognize and represent proportional relationships between quantities. (MS-PS4-1)
• 8.F.A.3 - Interpret the equation y = mx + b as defining a linear function, whose graph is a straight line; give examples of functions that are not linear. (MS-PS4-1)
• MP.2 - Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (MS-PS4-1)
• MP.4 - Model with mathematics. (MS-PS4-1)

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