The Standards

Connections to the Nature of Science


Scientific Knowledge Is Open to Revision in Light of New Evidence
Primary School (K-2)

Science knowledge can change when new information is found.

Elementary School (3-5)

Science explanations can change based on new evidence.

Middle School (6-8)

Scientific explanations are subject to revision and improvement in light of new evidence.

The certainty and durability of science findings varies.

Science findings are frequently revised and/or reinterpreted based on new evidence.

High School (9-12)

Scientific explanations can be probabilistic.

Most scientific knowledge is quite durable, but is, in principle, subject to change based on new evidence and/or reinterpretation of existing evidence.

Scientific argumentation is a mode of logical discourse used to clarify the strength of relationships between ideas and evidence that may result in revision of an explanation.