Primary School (K-2)
Science knowledge can change when new information is found.
Elementary School (3-5)
Science explanations can change based on new evidence.
Middle School (6-8)
Scientific explanations are subject to revision and improvement in light of new evidence.
The certainty and durability of science findings varies.
Science findings are frequently revised and/or reinterpreted based on new evidence.
High School (9-12)
Scientific explanations can be probabilistic.
Most scientific knowledge is quite durable, but is, in principle, subject to change based on new evidence and/or reinterpretation of existing evidence.
Scientific argumentation is a mode of logical discourse used to clarify the strength of relationships between ideas and evidence that may result in revision of an explanation.