Carolina Biological K-8 Curriculum - March 2023

Argument-Driven Inquiry in Physical Science: Lab Investigations for Grades 6-8

by: Jonathon Grooms, Patrick J. Enderle, Todd Hutner, Ashley Murphy, and Victor Sampson

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Are you interested in using argument-driven inquiry for middle school lab instruction but just aren’t sure how to do it? Argument-Driven Inquiry in Physical Science will provide you with both the information and instructional materials you need to start using this method right away. The book is a one-stop source of expertise, advice, and investigations to help physical science students work the way scientists do.

The book is divided into two basic parts:
1. An introduction to the stages of argument-driven inquiry—from question identification, data analysis, and argument development and evaluation to double-blind peer review and report revision.
2. A well-organized series of 22 field-tested labs designed to be much more authentic for instruction than traditional laboratory activities. The labs cover four core ideas in physical science: matter, motion and forces, energy, and waves. Students dig into important content and learn scientific practices as they figure out everything from how thermal energy works to what could make an action figure jump higher.

The authors are veteran teachers who know your time constraints, so they designed the book with easy-to-use reproducible student pages, teacher notes, and checkout questions. The labs also support today’s standards and will help your students learn the core ideas, crosscutting concepts, and scientific practices found in the Next Generation Science Standards. In addition, the authors offer ways for students to develop the disciplinary skills outlined in the Common Core State Standards.

Many of today’s middle school teachers—like you—want to find new ways to engage students in scientific practices and help students learn more from lab activities. Argument-Driven Inquiry in Physical Science does all of this while also giving students the chance to practice reading, writing, speaking, and using math in the context of science.

Table of Contents

Preface


Acknowledgments


About the Authors


Introduction





SECTION 1—Using Argument-Driven Inquiry


Chapter 1. Argument-Driven Inquiry


Chapter 2. Lab Investigations





SECTION 2—Physical Science Core Idea 1


Matter and Its Interactions





INTRODUCTION LABS


Lab 1. Thermal Energy and Matter: What Happens at the Molecular Level When Thermal Energy Is Added to a Substance?


Teacher Notes


Lab Handout


Checkout Questions


Lab 2. Chemical and Physical Changes: What Set of Rules Should We Use to Distinguish Between Chemical and Physical Changes in Matter?


Teacher Notes


Lab Handout


Checkout Questions





APPLICATION LABS


Lab 3. Physical Properties of Matter: What Are the Identities of the Unknown Substances?


Teacher Notes


Lab Handout


Checkout Questions


Lab 4. Conservation of Mass: How Does the Total Mass of the Substances Formed as a Result of a Chemical Change Compare With the Total Mass of the Original Substances?


Teacher Notes


Lab Handout


Checkout Questions


Lab 5. Design Challenge: Which Design Will Cool a Soda the Best?


Teacher Notes


Lab Handout


Checkout Questions





SECTION 3—Physical Science Core Idea 2


Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions





INTRODUCTION LABS


Lab 6. Strength of Gravitational Force: How Does the Gravitational Force That Exists Between Two Objects Relate to Their Masses and the Distance Between Them?


Teacher Notes


Lab Handout


Checkout Questions


Lab 7. Mass and Free Fall: How Does Mass Affect the Amount of Time It Takes for an Object to Fall to the Ground?


Teacher Notes


Lab Handout


Checkout Questions


Lab 8. Force and Motion: How Do Changes in Pulling Force Affect the Motion of an Object?


Teacher Notes


Lab Handout


Checkout Questions


Lab 9. Mass and Motion: How Do Changes in the Mass of an Object Affect Its Motion?


Teacher Notes


Lab Handout


Checkout Questions


Lab 10. Magnetic Force: How Is the Strength of an Electromagnet Affected by the Number of Coils of Wire?


Teacher Notes


Lab Handout


Checkout Questions





APPLICATION LABS


Lab 11. Design Challenge: Which Electromagnet Design Is Best for Picking Up 50 Paper Clips?


Teacher Notes


Lab Handout


Checkout Questions


Lab 12. Unbalanced Forces: How Does Surface Area Influence Friction and the Motion of an Object?


Teacher Notes


Lab Handout


Checkout Questions





SECTION 4—Physical Science Core Idea 3


Energy





INTRODUCTION LABS


Lab 13. Kinetic Energy: How Do the Mass and Velocity of an Object Affect Its Kinetic Energy?


Teacher Notes


Lab Handout


Checkout Questions


Lab 14. Potential Energy: How Can You Make an Action Figure Jump Higher?


Teacher Notes


Lab Handout


Checkout Questions


Lab 15. Thermal Energy and Specific Heat: Which Material Has the Greatest Specific Heat?


Teacher Notes


Lab Handout


Checkout Questions




Lab 16. Electrical Energy and Lightbulbs: How Does the Arrangement of Lightbulbs That Are Connected to a Battery Affect the Brightness of a Single Bulb in That Circuit?


Teacher Notes


Lab Handout


Checkout Questions




APPLICATION LABS


Lab 17. Rate of Energy Transfer: How Does the Surface Area of a Substance Affect the Rate at Which Thermal Energy Is Transferred From One Substance to Another?


Teacher Notes


Lab Handout


Checkout Questions


Lab 18. Radiation and Energy Transfer: What Color Should We Paint a Building to Reduce Cooling Costs?


Teacher Notes


Lab Handout


Checkout Questions







SECTION 5—Physical Science Core Idea 4


Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer





INTRODUCTION LABS


Lab 19. Wave Properties: How Do Frequency, Amplitude, and Wavelength of a Transverse Wave Affect Its Energy?


Teacher Notes


Lab Handout


Checkout Questions


Lab 20. Reflection and Refraction: How Can You Predict Where a Ray of Light Will Go When It Comes in Contact With Different Types of Transparent Materials?


Teacher Notes


Lab Handout


Checkout Questions





APPLICATION LABS


Lab 21. Light and Information Transfer: How Does the Type of Material Affect the Amount of Light That Is Lost When Light Waves Travel Down a Tube?


Teacher Notes


Lab Handout


Checkout Questions


Lab 22. Design Challenge: How Should Eyeglasses Be Shaped to Correct for Nearsightedness and Farsightedness?


Teacher Notes


Lab Handout


Checkout Questions





SECTION 6—Appendixes


Appendix 1. Standards Alignment Matrixes


Appendix 2. Options for Implementing ADI Lab Investigations


Appendix 3. Investigation Proposal Options


Appendix 4. Investigation Report Peer-Review Guide: Middle School Version





Image Credits


Index



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