Create a computational model to calculate the change in the energy of one component in a system when the change in energy of the other component(s) and energy flows in and out of the system are known. HS-PS3-1

Develop and use models to illustrate that energy at the macroscopic scale can be accounted for as a combination of energy associated with the motions of particles (objects) and energy associated with the relative positions of particles (objects) HS-PS3-2

Design, build, and refine a device that works within given constraints to convert one form of energy into another form of energy. HS-PS3-3

Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that the transfer of thermal energy when two components of different temperature are combined within a closed system results in a more uniform energy distribution among the components in the system (second law of thermodynamics). HS-PS3-4

Develop and use a model of two objects interacting through electric or magnetic fields to illustrate the forces between objects and the changes in energy of the objects due to the interaction. HS-PS3-5

**Developing and Using Models**

Modeling in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using, synthesizing, and developing models to predict and show relationships among variables between systems and their components in the natural and designed world(s).

**Planning and Carrying Out Investigations**

Planning and carrying out investigations in 9-12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to include investigations that provide evidence for and test conceptual, mathematical, physical, and empirical models.

**Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking**

Mathematical and computational thinking in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions.

**Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions**

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

**
PS3.A:
Definitions of Energy
**

**
PS3.B:
Conservation of Energy and Energy Transfer
**

The availability of energy limits what can occur in any system. (HS-PS3-1)

**
PS3.C:
Relationship Between Energy and Forces
**

**
PS3.D:
Energy in Chemical Processes and Everyday Life
**

**
ETS1.A:
Defining and Delimiting Engineering Problems
**

**Cause and Effect**

**Systems and System Models**

**Energy and Matter**

**Influence of Science, Engineering, and Technology on Society and the Natural World**

**Scientific Knowledge Assumes an Order and Consistency in Natural Systems**

Science assumes the universe is a vast single system in which basic laws are consistent. (HS-PS3-1)

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