Use mathematical representations of Newton’s Law of Gravitation and Coulomb’s Law to describe and predict the gravitational and electrostatic forces between objects. HS-PS2-4
Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on both quantitative and conceptual descriptions of gravitational and electric fields.
Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to systems with two objects.
Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking
Mathematical and computational thinking in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions.
Use mathematical representations of phenomena to describe explanations. (HS-PS2-4)
Science Models, Laws, Mechanisms, and Theories Explain Natural Phenomena
Theories and laws provide explanations in science, but theories do not with time become laws or facts. (HS-PS2-4)
Laws are statements or descriptions of the relationships among observable phenomena. (HS-PS2-4)
Types of Interactions
Newton’s law of universal gravitation and Coulomb’s law provide the mathematical models to describe and predict the effects of gravitational and electrostatic forces between distant objects. (HS-PS2-4)
Forces at a distance are explained by fields (gravitational, electric, and magnetic) permeating space that can transfer energy through space. Magnets or electric currents cause magnetic fields; electric charges or changing magnetic fields cause electric fields. (HS-PS2-4)
Different patterns may be observed at each of the scales at which a system is studied and can provide evidence for causality in explanations of phenomena. (HS-PS2-4)