The Standards

High School

Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

Students who demonstrate understanding can:



Use mathematical representations of Newton’s Law of Gravitation and Coulomb’s Law to describe and predict the gravitational and electrostatic forces between objects. HS-PS2-4

Clarification Statement and Assessment Boundary

Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on both quantitative and conceptual descriptions of gravitational and electric fields.

Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to systems with two objects.

Science and Engineering Practices

Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking

Mathematical and computational thinking in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions.

Use mathematical representations of phenomena to describe explanations. (HS-PS2-4)

Common Core State Standards Connections

  • HSA-SSE.A.1 - Interpret expressions that represent a quantity in terms of its context. (HS-PS2-4)
  • HSA-SSE.B.3 - Choose and produce an equivalent form of an expression to reveal and explain properties of the quantity represented by the expression.★ (HS-PS2-4)
  • HSN-Q.A.1 - Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays. (HS-PS2-4)
  • HSN-Q.A.2 - Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling. (HS-PS2-4)
  • HSN-Q.A.3 - Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities. (HS-PS2-4)
  • MP.2 - Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-PS2-4)
  • MP.4 - Model with mathematics. (HS-PS2-4)

Model Course Mapping

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