Construct and revise an explanation for the outcome of a simple chemical reaction based on the outermost electron states of atoms, trends in the periodic table, and knowledge of the patterns of chemical properties. HS-PS1-2

Develop a model to illustrate that the release or absorption of energy from a chemical reaction system depends upon the changes in total bond energy. HS-PS1-4

Apply scientific principles and evidence to provide an explanation about the effects of changing the temperature or concentration of the reacting particles on the rate at which a reaction occurs. HS-PS1-5

Refine the design of a chemical system by specifying a change in conditions that would produce increased amounts of products at equilibrium. HS-PS1-6

Use mathematical representations to support the claim that atoms, and therefore mass, are conserved during a chemical reaction. HS-PS1-7

**Developing and Using Models**

Modeling in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using, synthesizing, and developing models to predict and show relationships among variables between systems and their components in the natural and designed world(s).

**Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking**

Mathematical and computational thinking in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions.

Use mathematical representations of phenomena to support claims. (HS-PS1-7)

**Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions**

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

**
PS1.A:
Structure and Properties of Matter
**

**
PS1.B:
Chemical Reactions
**

**
ETS1.C:
Optimizing the Design Solution
**

**Patterns**

**Energy and Matter**

The total amount of energy and matter in closed systems is conserved. (HS-PS1-7)

**Stability and Change**

**Scientific Knowledge Assumes an Order and Consistency in Natural Systems**

Science assumes the universe is a vast single system in which basic laws are consistent. (HS-PS1-7)

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