Analyze data to support the claim that Newton’s second law of motion describes the mathematical relationship among the net force on a macroscopic object, its mass, and its acceleration. HS-PS2-1

Use mathematical representations to support the claim that the total momentum of a system of objects is conserved when there is no net force on the system. HS-PS2-2

Apply scientific and engineering ideas to design, evaluate, and refine a device that minimizes the force on a macroscopic object during a collision. HS-PS2-3

Use mathematical representations of Newton’s Law of Gravitation and Coulomb’s Law to describe and predict the gravitational and electrostatic forces between objects. HS-PS2-4

Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that an electric current can produce a magnetic field and that a changing magnetic field can produce an electric current. HS-PS2-5

**Planning and Carrying Out Investigations**

Planning and carrying out investigations in 9-12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to include investigations that provide evidence for and test conceptual, mathematical, physical, and empirical models.

**Analyzing and Interpreting Data**

Analyzing data in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to introducing more detailed statistical analysis, the comparison of data sets for consistency, and the use of models to generate and analyze data.

**Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking**

Mathematical and computational thinking in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions.

Use mathematical representations of phenomena to describe explanations. (HS-PS2-2), (HS-PS2-4)

**Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions**

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

**Science Models, Laws, Mechanisms, and Theories Explain Natural Phenomena**

**
PS2.A:
Forces and Motion
**

Newton’s second law accurately predicts changes in the motion of macroscopic objects. (HS-PS2-1)

**
PS2.B:
Types of Interactions
**

**
PS3.A:
Definitions of Energy
**

**
ETS1.A:
Defining and Delimiting Engineering Problems
**

**
ETS1.C:
Optimizing the Design Solution
**

**Patterns**

**Cause and Effect**

Systems can be designed to cause a desired effect. (HS-PS2-3)

**Systems and System Models**

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