Use mathematical representations to support a claim regarding relationships among the frequency, wavelength, and speed of waves traveling in various media. HS-PS4-1

Evaluate questions about the advantages of using a digital transmission and storage of information. HS-PS4-2

Evaluate the claims, evidence, and reasoning behind behind the idea that electromagnetic radiation can be described either by a wave model or a particle model, and that for some situations one model is more useful than the other. HS-PS4-3

Evaluate the validity and reliability of claims in published materials of the effects that different frequencies of electromagnetic radiation have when absorbed by matter. HS-PS4-4

Communicate technical information about about how some technological devices use the principles of wave behavior and wave interactions with matter to transmit and capture information and energy. HS-PS4-5

**Asking Questions and Defining Problems**

Asking questions and defining problems in 9–12 builds on grades K–8 experiences and progresses to formulating, refining, and evaluating empirically testable questions and design problems using models and simulations.

**Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking**

Mathematical and computational thinking in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions.

**Engaging in Argument from Evidence**

Engaging in argument from evidence in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using appropriate and sufficient evidence and scientific reasoning to defend and critique claims and explanations about the natural and designed world(s). Arguments may also come from current scientific or historical episodes in science.

**Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information**

Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to evaluating the validity and reliability of the claims, methods, and designs.

**Science Models, Laws, Mechanisms, and Theories Explain Natural Phenomena**

**
PS3.D:
Energy in Chemical Processes and Everyday Life
**

**
PS4.A:
Wave Properties
**

**
PS4.B:
Electromagnetic Radiation
**

Photoelectric materials emit electrons when they absorb light of a high-enough frequency. (HS-PS4-5)

**
PS4.C:
Information Technologies and Instrumentation
**

**Cause and Effect**

Systems can be designed to cause a desired effect. (HS-PS4-5)

**Systems and System Models**

**Stability and Change**

Systems can be designed for greater or lesser stability. (HS-PS4-2)

**Influence of Science, Engineering, and Technology on Society and the Natural World**

Modern civilization depends on major technological systems. (HS-PS4-2), (HS-PS4-5)

**Interdependence of Science, Engineering, and Technology**

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