Develop a model based on evidence to illustrate the life span of the sun and the role of nuclear fusion in the sun’s core to release energy in the form of radiation. HS-ESS1-1

Construct an explanation of the Big Bang theory based on astronomical evidence of light spectra, motion of distant galaxies, and composition of matter in the universe. HS-ESS1-2

Communicate scientific ideas about the way stars, over their life cycle, produce elements. HS-ESS1-3

Use mathematical or computational representations to predict the motion of orbiting objects in the solar system. HS-ESS1-4

**Developing and Using Models**

Modeling in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using, synthesizing, and developing models to predict and show relationships among variables between systems and their components in the natural and designed world(s).

**Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking**

Mathematical and computational thinking in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions.

Use mathematical or computational representations of phenomena to describe explanations. (HS-ESS1-4)

**Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions**

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

**Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information**

Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to evaluating the validity and reliability of the claims, methods, and designs.

**Science Models, Laws, Mechanisms, and Theories Explain Natural Phenomena**

**
PS3.D:
Energy in Chemical Processes and Everyday Life
**

**
PS4.B:
Electromagnetic Radiation
**

**
ESS1.A:
The Universe and Its Stars
**

**
ESS1.B:
Earth and the Solar System
**

**Scale, Proportion, and Quantity**

**Energy and Matter**

**Interdependence of Science, Engineering, and Technology**

**Scientific Knowledge Assumes an Order and Consistency in Natural Systems**

Science assumes the universe is a vast single system in which basic laws are consistent. (HS-ESS1-2)

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