Plan and conduct an investigation to describe and classify different kinds of materials by their observable properties. 2-PS1-1
Clarification Statement: Observations could include color, texture, hardness, and flexibility. Patterns could include the similar properties that different materials share.
Assessment Boundary: none
Analyze data obtained from testing different materials to determine which materials have the properties that are best suited for an intended purpose. 2-PS1-2
Clarification Statement: Examples of properties could include, strength, flexibility, hardness, texture, and absorbency.
Assessment Boundary: Assessment of quantitative measurements is limited to length.
Make observations to construct an evidence-based account of how an object made of a small set of pieces can be disassembled and made into a new object. 2-PS1-3
Clarification Statement: Examples of pieces could include blocks, building bricks, or other assorted small objects.
Construct an argument with evidence that some changes caused by heating or cooling can be reversed and some cannot. 2-PS1-4
Clarification Statement: Examples of reversible changes could include materials such as water and butter at different temperatures. Examples of irreversible changes could include cooking an egg, freezing a plant leaf, and heating paper.
Planning and Carrying Out Investigations
Planning and carrying out investigations to answer questions or test solutions to problems in K–2 builds on prior experiences and progresses to simple investigations, based on fair tests, which provide data to support explanations or design solutions.
Plan and conduct an investigation collaboratively to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence to answer a question. (2-PS1-1)
Analyzing and Interpreting Data
Analyzing data in K–2 builds on prior experiences and progresses to collecting, recording, and sharing observations.
Analyze data from tests of an object or tool to determine if it works as intended. (2-PS1-2)
Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
Constructing explanations and designing solutions in K–2 builds on prior experiences and progresses to the use of evidence and ideas in constructing evidence-based accounts of natural phenomenon and designing solutions.
Make observations (firsthand or from media) to construct an evidence-based account for natural phenomena. (2-PS1-3)
Engaging in Argument from Evidence
Engaging in argument from evidence in K–2 builds on prior experiences and progresses to comparing ideas and representations about the natural and designed world(s).
Construct an argument with evidence to support a claim. (2-PS1-4)
Science Models, Laws, Mechanisms, and Theories Explain Natural Phenomena
Science searches for cause and effect relationships to explain natural events. (2-PS1-4)
Structure and Properties of Matter
Different kinds of matter exist and many of them can be either solid or liquid, depending on temperature. Matter can be described and classified by its observable properties. (2-PS1-1)
Different properties are suited to different purposes. (2-PS1-2), (2-PS1-3)
A great variety of objects can be built up from a small set of pieces. (2-PS1-3)
Heating or cooling a substance may cause changes that can be observed. Sometimes these changes are reversible, and sometimes they are not. (2-PS1-4)
Patterns in the natural and human designed world can be observed. (2-PS1-1)
Cause and Effect
Simple tests can be designed to gather evidence to support or refute student ideas about causes. (2-PS1-2)
Events have causes that generate observable patterns. (2-PS1-4)
Energy and Matter
Objects may break into smaller pieces and be put together into larger pieces, or change shapes. (2-PS1-3)
Influence of Science, Engineering, and Technology on Society and the Natural World
Every human-made product is designed by applying some knowledge of the natural world and is built using materials derived from the natural world. (2-PS1-2)